General terms used in the interpreting/translating industry:
American Disability Act, 1990 - The ADA prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability in employment, State and local government, public accommodations, commercial facilities, transportation, and telecommunications. It also applies to the United States Congress.
To be protected by the ADA, one must have a disability or have a relationship or association with an individual with a disability. An individual with a disability is defined by the ADA as a person who has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities, a person who has a history or record of such impairment, or a person who is perceived by others as having such an impairment. The ADA does not specifically name all of the impairments that are covered.
American Sign Language - American Sign Language (ASL) is a visual language. With signing, the brain processes linguistic information through the eyes. The shape, placement, and movement of the hands, as well as facial expressions and body movements, all play important parts in conveying information.
CDI - Certified Deaf Interpreter.
Certified Interpreter - In the US, there is no national interpreter certification program (other than for Federally Certified Court Interpreters) and Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf (RID).
Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Title VI) - Prohibition against exclusion from participation in, denial of benefits of, and discrimination under federally assisted programs on ground of race, color, or national origin (including language).
CODA - Child of Deaf Adults. These children are hearing but their native and first language is most likely ASL.
Consecutive Interpreting - The process of orally translating speech into another language, after the speaker speaks. The interpreter listens and takes notes while the speaker talks and then delivers the interpretation while the speaker is silent. No equipment is used. Often used in business meetings, negotiations, court proceedings and press conferences.
Cultural Adjustments - Finding the equivalent word from the target language into the source language. Allowing for the discourse to make culturally related sense.
Simultaneous Interpreting - The process of translating speech orally into another langauge at the same time and at the same rate of speech as the speaker.
Deaf - A person who was born Deaf and considers themselves part of the deaf community and is culturally Deaf. A person who becomes deaf later in life, like old age, would be labeled "deaf" with the lower case 'd' indicating that this person is not a part of the deaf community.
Interpreter - A person who translates a language via orally or signing.
ITP - Interpreter Training Program.
Limited English Proficiency - Individuals who do not speak English as their primary language and who have a limited ability to read, speak, write, or understand English can be limited English proficient, or "LEP." These individuals may be entitled language assistance with respect to a particular type or service, benefit, or encounter.
MLS - Minimal Language Skills.
Native Speaker - A person who speaks the first language he or she learned, which may or may not be the person’s dominant language or language of primary competence. Native speakers can have a grossly inadequate knowledge of their native language, depending on their education and the country where that education was obtained.
Qualified Interpreter - An interpreter that has the fluency and experience but has not taken the certification test.
Source Language - Language in which a text to be translated is written, or in which a speech to be interpreted is spoken. The language of the original text or speech.
Target Language - Language into which a text is translated or a speech interpreted.
Translator - A person who transcribes written language.
Resources: www.nad.org, www.imiaweb.org, www.njait.org, www.barinas.com, www.ada.gov, www.justice.gov, www.rid.org